By Hannah Pierce and Audrie Pirkl
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on collective intelligence and was originally published in 2017.
The Collective Intelligence Universe
- Amount of money that Reykjavik’s Better Neighbourhoods program has provided each year to crowdsourced citizen projects since 2012: € 2 million (Citizens Foundation)
- Number of U.S. government challenges that people are currently participating in to submit their community solutions: 778 (Challenge.gov).
- Percent of U.S. arts organizations used social media to crowdsource ideas in 2013, from programming decisions to seminar scheduling details: 52% (Pew Research)
- Number of Wikipedia members who have contributed to a page in the last 30 days: over 120,000 (Wikipedia Page Statistics)
- Number of languages that the multinational crowdsourced Letters for Black Lives has been translated into: 23 (Letters for Black Lives)
- Number of comments in a Reddit thread that established a more comprehensive timeline of the theater shooting in Aurora than the media: 1272 (Reddit)
- Number of physicians that are members of SERMO, a platform to crowdsource medical research: 800,000 (SERMO)
- Number of citizen scientist projects registered on SciStarter: over 1,500 (Collective Intelligence 2017 Plenary Talk: Darlene Cavalier)
- Entrants to NASA’s 2009 TopCoder Challenge: over 1,800 (NASA)
- Number of submissions for Block Holm (a digital platform that allows citizens to build “Minecraft” ideas on vacant city lots) within the first six months: over 10,000 (OpenLearn)
- Number of people engaged to The Participatory Budgeting Project in the U.S.: over 300,000. (Participatory Budgeting Project)
- Amount of money allocated to community projects through this initiative: $238,000,000
- Percentage of Internet-using adults with chronic health conditions that have gone online within the US to connect with others suffering from similar conditions: 23% (Pew Research)
- Number of posts to Patient Opinion, a UK based platform for patients to provide anonymous feedback to healthcare providers: over 120,000 (Nesta)
- Percent of NHS health trusts utilizing the posts to improve services in 2015: 90%
- Stories posted per month: nearly 1,000 (The Guardian)
- Number of tumors reported to the English National Cancer Registration each year: over 300,000 (Gov.UK)
- Number of users of an open source artificial pancreas system: 310 (Collective Intelligence 2017 Plenary Talk: Dana Lewis)
- Number of submissions from 40 countries to the 2017 Open (Government) Contracting Innovation Challenge: 88 (The Open Data Institute)
- Public-service complaints received each day via Indonesian digital platform Lapor!: over 500 (McKinsey & Company)
- Number of registered users of Unicef Uganda’s weekly, SMS poll U-Report: 356,468 (U-Report)
- Number of reports regarding government corruption in India submitted to IPaidaBribe since 2011: over 140,000 (IPaidaBribe)
- Reviews posted since Yelp’s creation in 2009: 121 million reviews (Statista)
- Percent of Americans in 2016 who trust online customer reviews as much as personal recommendations: 84% (BrightLocal)
- Number of companies and their subsidiaries mapped through the OpenCorporates platform: 60 million (Omidyar Network)
- Number of sexual harassment reports submitted to from 50 cities in India and Nepal to SafeCity, a crowdsourcing site and mobile app: over 4,000 (SafeCity)
- Number of people that used Facebook’s Safety Check, a feature that is being used in a new disaster mapping project, in the first 24 hours after the terror attacks in Paris: 4.1 million (Facebook)
Wenjie Wu Jianghao Wang & Tianshi Dai in Annals of the American Association of Geographers: “A largely unexplored big data application in urban contexts is how cultural ties affect human mobility patterns. This article explores China’s intercity human mobility patterns from social media data to contribute to our understanding of this question. Exposure to human mobility patterns is measured by big data computational strategy for identifying hundreds of millions of individuals’ space–time footprint trajectories. Linguistic data are coded as a proxy for cultural ties from a unique geographically coded atlas of dialect distributions. We find that cultural ties are associated with human mobility flows between city pairs, contingent on commuting costs and geographical distances. Such effects are not distributed evenly over time and space, however. These findings present useful insights in support of the cultural mechanism that can account for the rise, decline, and dynamics of human mobility between regions….(More)”
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on crime and criminal justice data and was originally published in 2015.
This index provides information about the type of crime and criminal justice data collected, shared and used in the United States. Because it is well known that data related to the criminal justice system is often times unreliable, or just plain missing, this index also highlights some of the issues that stand in the way of accessing useful and in-demand statistics.
Data Collections: National Crime Statistics
- Number of incident-based crime datasets created by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): 2
- Number of U.S. Statistical Agencies: 13
- How many of those are focused on criminal justice: 1, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
- Number of data collections focused on criminal justice the BJS produces: 61
- Number of federal-level APIs available for crime or criminal justice data: 1, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
- Frequency of the NCVS: annually
- Number of Statistical Analysis Centers (SACs), organizations that are essentially clearinghouses for crime and criminal justice data for each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands: 53
Open data, data use and the impact of those efforts
- Number of datasets that are returned when “criminal justice” is searched for on Data.gov: 417, including federal-, state- and city-level datasets
- Number of datasets that are returned when “crime” is searched for on Data.gov: 281
- The percentage that public complaints dropped after officers started wearing body cameras, according to a study done in Rialto, Calif.: 88
- The percentage that reported incidents of officer use of force fell after officers started wearing body cameras, according to a study done in Rialto, Calif.: 5
- The percent that crime decreased during an experiment in predictive policing in Shreveport, LA: 35
- Number of crime data sets made available by the Seattle Police Department – generally seen as a leader in police data innovation – on the Seattle.gov website: 4
- Major crime stats by category in aggregate
- Crime trend reports
- Precinct data by beat
- State sex offender database
- Number of datasets mapped by the Seattle Police Department: 2:
- Number of states where risk assessment tools must be used in pretrial proceedings to help determine whether an offender is released from jail before a trial: at least 11.
- Number of federally mandated databases that collect information about officer use of force or officer involved shootings, nationwide: 0
- The year a crime bill was passed that called for data on excessive force to be collected for research and statistical purposes, but has never been funded: 1994
- Number of police departments that committed to being a part of the White House’s Police Data Initiative: 21
- Percentage of police departments surveyed in 2013 by the Office of Community Oriented Policing within the Department of Justice that are not using body cameras, therefore not collecting body camera data: 75
The criminal justice system
- Parts of the criminal justice system where data about an individual can be created or collected: at least 6
- Entry into the system (arrest)
- Prosecution and pretrial
- Crime Mapper. Philadelphia Police Department. Accessed August 24, 2014.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on prizes and challenges and was originally published in 2015.
This index highlights recent findings about two key techniques in shifting innovation from institutions to the general public:
- Prize-Induced Contests – using monetary rewards to incentivize individuals and other entities to develop solutions to public problems; and
- Grand Challenges – posing large, audacious goals to the public to spur collaborative, non-governmental efforts to solve them.
You can read more about Governing through Prizes and Challenges here. You can also watch Alph Bingham, co-founder of Innocentive, answer the GovLab’s questions about challenge authoring and defining the problem here.
Previous installments of the Index include Measuring Impact with Evidence, The Data Universe, Participation and Civic Engagement and Trust in Institutions. Please share any additional statistics and research findings on the intersection of technology in governance with us by emailing shruti at thegovlab.org.
- Year the British Government introduced the Longitude Prize, one of the first instances of prizes by government to spur innovation: 1714
- President Obama calls on “all agencies to increase their use of prizes to address some of our Nation’s most pressing challenges” in his Strategy for American Innovation: September 2009
- The US Office of Management and Budget issues “a policy framework to guide agencies in using prizes to mobilize American ingenuity and advance their respective core missions”: March 2010
- Launch of Challenge.gov, “a one-stop shop where entrepreneurs and citizen solvers can find public-sector prize competitions”: September 2010
- Number of competitions currently live on Challenge.gov in February 2015: 22 of 399 total
- How many competitions on Challenge.gov are for $1 million or above: 23
- The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act is introduced, which grants “all Federal agencies authority to conduct prize competitions to spur innovation, solve tough problems, and advance their core missions”: 2010
- Value of prizes authorized by COMPETES: prizes up to $50 million
- Fact Sheet and Frequently Asked Questions memorandum issued by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget to aid agencies to take advantage of authorities in COMPETES: August 2011
- Number of prize competitions run by the Federal government from 2010 to April 2012: 150
- How many Federal agencies have run prize competitions by 2012: 40
- Prior to 1991, the percentage of prize money that recognized prior achievements according to an analysis by McKinsey and Company: 97%
- Since 1991, percentage of new prize money that “has been dedicated to inducement-style prizes that focus on achieving a specific, future goal”: 78%
- Value of the prize sector as estimated by McKinsey in 2009: $1-2 billion
- Growth rate of the total value of new prizes: 18% annually
- Growth rate in charitable giving in the US: 2.5% annually
Value of the first Horizon Prize
awarded in 2014 by the European Commission to German biopharmaceutical company CureVac GmbH “for progress towards a novel technology to bring life-saving vaccines to people across the planet in safe and affordable ways”: €2 million
- Number of solvers registered on InnoCentive, a crowdsourcing company: 355,000+ from nearly 200 countries
- Total Challenges Posted: 2,000+ External Challenges
- Total Solution Submissions: 40,000+
- Value of the awards: $5,000 to $1+ million
- Success Rate for premium challenges: 85%
- Value of the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize, sponsored in part by DOE to develop production-capable super fuel-efficient vehicles: $10 million
- Number of teams around the world who took part in the challenge “to develop a new generation of technologies” for production-capable super fuel-efficient vehicles: 111 teams
- Time it took for the Air Force Research Laboratory to receive a workable solution on “a problem that had vexed military security forces and civilian police for years” by opening the challenge to the world: 60 days
- Value of the HHS Investing in Innovation initiative to spur innovation in Health IT, launched under the new COMPETES act: $5 million program
- Number of responses received by NASA for its Asteroid Grand Challenge RFI which seeks to identify and address all asteroid threats to the human population: over 400
- The decreased cost of sequencing a single human genome as a result of the Human Genome Project Grand Challenge: $7000 from $100 million
- Amount the Human Genome Project Grand Challenge has contributed to the US economy for every $1 invested by the US federal government: $141 for every $1 invested
- The amount of funding for research available for the “Brain Initiative,” a collaboration between the National Institute of Health, DARPA and the National Science Foundation, which seeks to uncover new prevention and treatment methods for brain disorders like Alzheimer’s, autism and schizophrenia: $100 million
- Total amount offered in cash awards by the Department of Energy’s “SunShot Grand Challenge,” which seeks to eliminate the cost disparity between solar energy and coal by the end of the decade: $10 million
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on the networked public and was originally published in 2014.
- The proportion of global population who use the Internet in 2013: 38.8%, up 3 percentage points from 2012
- Increase in average global broadband speeds from 2012 to 2013: 17%
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that access the internet at least once a day in 2012: 96
- Hours spent online in 2012 each month across the globe: 35 billion
- Country with the highest online population, as a percent of total population in 2012: United Kingdom (85%)
- Country with the lowest online population, as a percent of total population in 2012: India (8%)
- Trend with the highest growth rate in 2012: Location-based services (27%)
- Years to reach 50 million users: telephone (75), radio (38), TV (13), internet (4)
Growth Rates in 2014
- Number of Whatsapp messages on average sent per day: 50 billion
- Number sent per day on Snapchat: 1.2 billion
- How many restaurants are registered on GrubHub in 2014: 29,000
- Amount the sale of digital songs fell in 2013: 6%
- How much song streaming grew in 2013: 32%
- Number of photos uploaded and shared every day on Flickr, Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook and Whatsapp combined in 2014: 1.8 billion
- How many online adults in the U.S. use a social networking site of some kind: 73%
- Those who use multiple social networking sites: 42%
- Dominant social networking platform: Facebook, with 71% of online adults
- Number of Facebook users in 2004, its founding year: 1 million
- Number of monthly active users on Facebook in September 2013: 1.19 billion, an 18% increase year-over-year
- How many Facebook users log in to the site daily: 63%
- Instagram users who log into the service daily: 57%
- Twitter users who are daily visitors: 46%
- Number of photos uploaded to Facebook every minute: over 243,000, up 16% from 2012
- How much of the global internet population is actively using Twitter every month: 21%
- Number of tweets per minute: 350,000, up 250% from 2012
- Fastest growing demographic on Twitter: 55-64 year age bracket, up 79% from 2012
- Fastest growing demographic on Facebook: 45-54 year age bracket, up 46% from 2012
- How many LinkedIn accounts are created every minute: 120, up 20% from 2012
- The number of Google searches in 2013: 3.5 million, up 75% from 2012
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that use social media in 2012: 90
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that use social media daily: 60
- Time spent social networking, the most popular online activity: 22%, followed by searches (21%), reading content (20%), and emails/communication (19%)
- The average age at which a child acquires an online presence through their parents in 10 mostly Western countries: six months
- Number of children in those countries who have a digital footprint by age 2: 81%
- How many new American marriages between 2005-2012 began by meeting online, according to a nationally representative study: more than one-third
- How many of the world’s 505 leaders are on Twitter: 3/4
- Combined Twitter followers: of 505 world leaders: 106 million
- Combined Twitter followers of Justin Bieber, Katy Perry, and Lady Gaga: 122 million
- How many times all Wikipedias are viewed per month: nearly 22 billion times
- How many hits per second: more than 8,000
- English Wikipedia’s share of total page views: 47%
- Number of articles in the English Wikipedia in December 2013: over 4,395,320
- Platform that reaches more U.S. adults between ages 18-34 than any cable network: YouTube
- Number of unique users who visit YouTube each month: more than 1 billion
- How many hours of video are watched on YouTube each month: over 6 billion, 50% more than 2012
- Proportion of YouTube traffic that comes from outside the U.S.: 80%
- Most common activity online, based on an analysis of over 10 million web users: social media
- People on Twitter who recommend products in their tweets: 53%
- People who trust online recommendations from people they know: 90%
Mobile and the Internet of Things
- Number of global smartphone users in 2013: 1.5 billion
- Number of global mobile phone users in 2013: over 5 billion
- Percent of U.S. adults that have a cell phone in 2013: 91
- Number of which are a smartphone: almost two thirds
- Mobile Facebook users in March 2013: 751 million, 54% increase since 2012
- Growth rate of global mobile traffic as a percentage of global internet traffic as of May 2013: 15%, up from .9% in 2009
- How many smartphone owners ages 18–44 “keep their phone with them for all but two hours of their waking day”: 79%
- Those who reach for their smartphone immediately upon waking up: 62%
- Those who couldn’t recall a time their phone wasn’t within reach or in the same room: 1 in 4
- Facebook users who access the service via a mobile device: 73.44%
- Those who are “mobile only”: 189 million
- Amount of YouTube’s global watch time that is on mobile devices: almost 40%
- Number of objects connected globally in the “internet of things” in 2012: 8.7 billion
- Number of connected objects so far in 2013: over 10 billion
- Years from tablet introduction for tables to surpass desktop PC and notebook shipments: less than 3 (over 55 million global units shipped in 2013, vs. 45 million notebooks and 35 million desktop PCs)
- Number of wearable devices estimated to have been shipped worldwide in 2011: 14 million
- Projected number of wearable devices in 2016: between 39-171 million
- How much of the wearable technology market is in the healthcare and medical sector in 2012: 35.1%
- How many devices in the wearable tech market are fitness or activity trackers: 61%
- The value of the global wearable technology market in 2012: $750 million
- The forecasted value of the market in 2018: $5.8 billion
- How many Americans are aware of wearable tech devices in 2013: 52%
- Devices that have the highest level of awareness: wearable fitness trackers,
- Level of awareness for wearable fitness trackers amongst American consumers: 1 in 3 consumers
- Value of digital fitness category in 2013: $330 million
- How many American consumers surveyed are aware of smart glasses: 29%
- Smart watch awareness amongst those surveyed: 36%
- How much of the developed world has mobile broadband subscriptions in 2013: 3/4
- How much of the developing world has broadband subscription in 2013: 1/5
- Percent of U.S. adults that had a laptop in 2012: 57
- How many American adults did not use the internet at home, at work, or via mobile device in 2013: one in five
- Amount President Obama initiated spending in 2009 in an effort to expand access: $7 billion
- Number of Americans potentially shut off from jobs, government services, health care and education, among other opportunities due to digital inequality: 60 million
- American adults with a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 7 out of 10
- Americans aged 18-29 vs. 65+ with a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 80% vs. 43
- American adults with college education (or more) vs. adults with no high school diploma that have a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 89% vs. 37%
- Percent of U.S. adults with college education (or more) that use the internet in 2011: 94
- Those with no high school diploma that used the internet in 2011: 43
- Percent of white American households that used the internet in 2013: 67
- Black American households that used the internet in 2013: 57
- States with lowest internet use rates in 2013: Mississippi, Alabama and Arkansas
- How many American households have only wireless telephones as of the second half of 2012: nearly two in five
- States with the highest prevalence of wireless-only adults according to predictive modeling estimates: Idaho (52.3%), Mississippi (49.4%), Arkansas (49%)
- Those with the lowest prevalence of wireless-only adults: New Jersey (19.4%), Connecticut (20.6%), Delaware (23.3%) and New York (23.5%)
- “A Focus on Efficiency: A whitepaper from Facebook, Ericsson and Qualcomm,” internet.org, September 16, 2013.
- “Always Connected: How Smartphones And Social Keep Us Engaged,” IDC Research Report, 2013.
- Blumberg, Stephen J., Nadarajasundaram Ganesh, Julian V. Luke, and Gilbert Gonzales. “Wireless Substitution: State-level Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2012,” National Health Statistics Reports, Number 70, December 18, 2013.
- Cacioppo, John T., Stephanie Cacioppo, Gian C. Gonzaga, Elizabeth L. Ogburn, and Tyler J. VanderWeele. “Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 25 (2013): 10135-10140.
- “Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion,” Cisco, July 29, 2013.
- Cooper, Belle Beth. “10 Surprising social media statistics that might make you rethink your social strategy,” Buffer, July 16, 2013.
- Duggan, Maeve and Aaron Smith. “Social Media Update 2013” Pew Research Center, January 2014.
- “Facebook Quarterly Earnings Slides,” Q1 2013, Facebook.
- Hachman, Mark. “Facebook Used by Half of the World’s Internet Users, Save Asia,” PC Mag, February 2012.
- Hanun, Marya. “Klout,” Foreign Policy, August 9, 2013
- Howle, Cynthia, Glenny Brock, and Alan Blinder. “Most of U.S. is Wired but Millions Aren’t Plugged In,” The New York Times, August 18, 2013.
- “Key ICT indicators for developed and developing countries and the world (totals and penetration rates)”, International Telecommunications Unions (ITU), Geneva, February 27, 2013.
- “Global Internet User Survey Sumary Reports,” The Internet Society, 2012, Accessed on August 13, 2013.
- Goldsmith, Belinda. “Porn passed over as Web users become social: author,” Reuters, September 2008.
- Meeker, Mary. “Internet Trends 2013,” KPCB, presented at D11 Conference, Rancho Palos,Verdes, California, May 28-30, 2013.
- Meeker, Mary. “2014 Internet Trends,” KPCB, May 28, 2014.
- Mirani, Leo. “A snapshot of one minute on the internet, today and in 2012,” Quartz, November 26, 2013.
- Piombino, Kristin. “How Internet Users Worldwide Spend Time Online,” May 17, 2012.
- Qualman, Erik. “Social Media Revolution,” YouTube, March 21, 2013.
- “Statistics,” YouTube, Accessed December 6, 2013.
- Sullivan, Danny. “Google: 100 billion Searches Per month, Search to integrate Gmail, Launching Enhanced Search App for iOS,” Search Engine Land, August 8, 2012.
- “Twitter Now The Fastest Growing Social Platform In The World” Global Web Index, January 28 , 2013.
- “Wearable Tech Device Awareness Surpasses 50 Percent Among US Consumers, According to NPD,” NPD Group, January 2014.
- “Wearable Technology Market – Global Scenario, Trends, Industry Analysis, Size, Share and Forecast, 2012- 2018,” Transparency Market Research, 2013.
- “Wikimedia Report Card” Wikimedia Labs, December 2013.
- “World Market for Wearable Technology – A Quantitative Market Assessment – 2012,” IMS Research, 2012.
- “Would you want a digital footprint from birth?” AVG Blogs, October 6, 2010.
- Zickuhr, Kathryn and Aaron Smith. “Digital Differences,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, April 13, 2012
- Zickuhr, Kathryn and Aaron Smith. “Home Broadband 2013,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, August 26, 2013.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on privacy and security and was originally published in 2014.
- Percentage of people who feel the Internet is eroding their personal privacy: 56%
- Internet users who feel comfortable sharing personal data with an app: 37%
- Number of users who consider it important to know when an app is gathering information about them: 70%
- How many people in the online world use privacy tools to disguise their identity or location: 28%, or 415 million people
- Country with the highest penetration of general anonymity tools among Internet users: Indonesia, where 42% of users surveyed use proxy servers
- Percentage of China’s online population that disguises their online location to bypass governmental filters: 34%
In the United States
Over the Years
- In 1996, percentage of the American public who were categorized as having “high privacy concerns”: 25%
- Those with “Medium privacy concerns”: 59%
- Those who were unconcerned with privacy: 16%
- In 1998, number of computer users concerned about threats to personal privacy: 87%
- In 2001, those who reported “medium to high” privacy concerns: 88%
- Individuals who are unconcerned about privacy: 18% in 1990, down to 10% in 2004
- How many online American adults are more concerned about their privacy in 2014 than they were a year ago, indicating rising privacy concerns: 64%
- Number of respondents in 2012 who believe they have control over their personal information: 35%, downward trend for 7 years
- How many respondents in 2012 continue to perceive privacy and the protection of their personal information as very important or important to the overall trust equation: 78%, upward trend for seven years
- How many consumers in 2013 trust that their bank is committed to ensuring the privacy of their personal information is protected: 35%, down from 48% in 2004
Privacy Concerns and Beliefs
- How many Internet users worry about their privacy online: 92%
- Those who report that their level of concern has increased from 2013 to 2014: 7 in 10
- How many are at least sometimes worried when shopping online: 93%, up from 89% in 2012
- Those who have some concerns when banking online: 90%, up from 86% in 2012
- Number of Internet users who are worried about the amount of personal information about them online: 50%, up from 33% in 2009
- Those who report that their photograph is available online: 66%
- Their birthdate: 50%
- Home address: 30%
- Cell number: 24%
- A video: 21%
- Political affiliation: 20%
- Consumers who are concerned about companies tracking their activities: 58%
- Those who are concerned about the government tracking their activities: 38%
- How many users surveyed felt that the National Security Association (NSA) overstepped its bounds in light of recent NSA revelations: 44%
- Respondents who are comfortable with advertisers using their web browsing history to tailor advertisements as long as it is not tied to any other personally identifiable information: 36%, up from 29% in 2012
- Percentage of voters who do not want political campaigns to tailor their advertisements based on their interests: 86%
- Percentage of respondents who do not want news tailored to their interests: 56%
- Percentage of users who are worried about their information will be stolen by hackers: 75%
- Those who are worried about companies tracking their browsing history for targeted advertising: 54%
- How many consumers say they do not trust businesses with their personal information online: 54%
- Top 3 most trusted companies for privacy identified by consumers from across 25 different industries in 2012: American Express, Hewlett Packard and Amazon
- Most trusted industries for privacy: Healthcare, Consumer Products and Banking
- Least trusted industries for privacy: Internet and Social Media, Non-Profits and Toys
- Respondents who admit to sharing their personal information with companies they did not trust in 2012 for reasons such as convenience when making a purchase: 63%
- Percentage of users who say they prefer free online services supported by targeted ads: 61%
- Those who prefer paid online services without targeted ads: 33%
- How many Internet users believe that it is not possible to be completely anonymous online: 59%
- Those who believe complete online anonymity is still possible: 37%
- Those who say people should have the ability to use the Internet anonymously: 59%
- Percentage of Internet users who believe that current laws are not good enough in protecting people’s privacy online: 68%
- Those who believe current laws provide reasonable protection: 24%
Security Related Issues
- How many have had an email or social networking account compromised or taken over without permission: 21%
- Those who have been stalked or harassed online: 12%
- Those who think the federal government should do more to act against identity theft: 74%
- Consumers who agree that they will avoid doing business with companies who they do not believe protect their privacy online: 89%
- Among 65+ year old consumers: 96%
- How many mobile phone users have decided not to install an app after discovering the amount of information it collects: 54%
- Number of Internet users who have taken steps to remove or mask their digital footprint (including clearing cookies, encrypting emails, and using virtual networks to mask their IP addresses): 86%
- Those who have set their browser to disable cookies: 65%
- Number of users who have not allowed a service to remember their credit card information: 73%
- Those who have chosen to block an app from accessing their location information: 53%
- How many have signed up for a two-step sign-in process: 57%
- Percentage of Gen-X (33-48 year olds) and Millennials (18-32 year olds) who say they never change their passwords or only change them when forced to: 41%
- How many report using a unique password for each site and service: 4 in 10
- Those who use the same password everywhere: 7%
- “2012 Most Trusted Companies for Privacy,” Ponemon Institute, January 28, 2013.
- “Fortinet 2014 Privacy Survey Reveals Gen-X and Millennial Attitudes Surrounding Passwords, Personal Data, Email Snooping and Online Marketing Practices” Fortinet, Feb 24, 2014.
- “Global Privacy Survey 2013,” MEFMobile, 2013.
- “Internet Security Priorities,” Computer and Communications Industry Association, December 20, 2013.
- Kiss, Jemima. “Privacy Tools used by 28% of the online world, research finds,” The Guardian, 21 January 2014.
- Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam, and Lorrie Faith Cranor. “Privacy indexes: a survey of Westin’s studies.” Institute for Software Research International, Carnegie Mellon University, and Carnegie Mellon CyLab. December 2005.
- “Most Trusted Retail Banks for Privacy,” Ponemon Institute, October 10, 2013.
- “TRUSTe 2014 US Consumer Confidence Privacy Report,” TRUSTe, 2014.
- Rainie, Lee, Kiesler, Sara, Kang, Ruogu, and Madden, Mary. “Anonymity, Privacy, and Security Online,” PewResearch Internet Project, September 05, 2013.
- Smith, Aaron and Mary Madden. “Privacy and Data Management on Mobile Devices,” PewResearch Internet Project, September 5, 2012.
- Turow, Joseph, Carpini, Michael, Draper, Nora, and Rowan Howard-Williams. “Americans Roundly Reject Tailored Political Advertising,” Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on designing for behavior change and was originally published in 2014.
- Year the Behavioural Insights or “Nudge” Team was established by David Cameron in the U.K.: 2010
- Amount saved by the U.K. Courts Service a year by sending people owing fines personalized text messages to persuade them to pay promptly since the creation of the Nudge unit: £30m
- Entire budget for the Behavioural Insights Team: less than £1 million
- Estimated reduction in bailiff interventions through the use of personalized text reminders: 150,000 fewer interventions annually
- Percentage increase among British residents who paid their taxes on time when they received a letter saying that most citizens in their neighborhood pay their taxes on time: 15%
- Estimated increase in organ-donor registrations in the U.K. if people are asked “If you needed an organ transplant, would you take one?”: 96,000
- Proportion of employees who now have a workplace pension since the U.K. government switched from opt-in to opt-out (illustrating the power of defaults): 83%, 63% before opt-out
- Increase in 401(k) enrollment rates within the U.S. by changing the default from ‘opt in’ to ‘opt out’: from 13% to 80%
- Behavioral studies have shown that consumers overestimate savings from credit cards with no annual fees. Reduction in overall borrowing costs to consumers by requiring card issuers to tell consumers how much it would cost them in fees and interest, under the 2009 CARD Act in the U.S.: 1.7% of average daily balances
- Many high school students and their families in the U.S. find financial aid forms for college complex and thus delay filling them out. Increase in college enrollment as a result of being helped to complete the FAFSA financial aid form by an H&R tax professional, who then provided immediate estimates of the amount of aid the student was eligible for, and the net tuition cost of four nearby public colleges: 26%
- How much more likely people are to keep accounting records, calculate monthly revenues, and separate their home and business books if given “rules of thumb”-based training with regards to managing their finances, according to a randomized control trial conducted in a bank in the Dominican Republic: 10%
- Elderly Americans are asked to choose from over 40 options when enrolling in Medicaid Part D private drug plans. How many switched plans to save money when they received a letter providing information about three plans that would be cheaper for them: almost double
- The amount saved on average per person by switching plans due to this intervention: $150 per year
- Increase in prescriptions to manage cardiac disease when Medicaid enrollees are sent a suite of behavioral nudges such as more salient description of the consequences of remaining untreated and post-it note reminders during an experiment in the U.S.: 78%
- Reduction in street-litter when a trail of green footprints leading to nearby garbage cans is stenciled on the ground during an experiment in Copenhagen, Denmark: 46%
- Reduction in missed National Health Service appointments in the U.K. when patients are asked to fill out their own appointment cards: 18%
- Reduction in missed appointments when patients are also made aware of the number of people who attend their appointments on time: 31%
- The cost of non-attendance per year for the National Health Service: £700m
- How many people in a U.S. experiment chose to ‘downsize’ their meals when asked, regardless of whether they received a discount for the smaller portion: 14-33%
- Average reduction in calories as a result of downsizing: 200
- Number of households in the U.K. without properly insulated attics, leading to high energy consumption and bills: 40%
- Result of offering group discounts to motivate households to insulate their attics: no effect
- Increase in households that agreed to insulate their attics when offered loft-clearing services even though they had to pay for the service: 4.8 fold increase
- “Applying Behavioural Insights to Organ Donation: preliminary results from a randomised controlled trial,” The Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team, December 2013.
- Bennhold, Katrin. “Britain’s Ministry of Nudges,” New York Times, December 2013.
- Darling, Matthew. Datta, Saugato. and Mullainathan, Sendhil. “The Nature of the BEast: What Behavioral Economics Is Not,” The Center for Global Development. October 2013.
- Gyani, Alex. “Applying behavioural insights to public policy.”
- Haynes, Laura, Owain Service, Ben Goldacre, and David Torgerson. “Test, Learn, Adapt: Developing Public Policy with Randomised Controlled Trials,” The Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team, June 2012.
- “H&R Block FAFSA Randomized Experiment,” Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, February 2011.
- Lunn, Pete. “Regulatory Policy and Behavioural Economics,” OECD Publishing, January 2014.
- “Organ donor registrations: trialling different approaches,” The Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team, December 2013.
- Schoar, Antoinette and Datta, Saugato. ‘The Power of Heuristics’. January 2014. Ideas42.
- “UK Cabinet Office ‘nudge’ team to be spun off into private group,” Financial Times, February 2014.
- “Using nudges to improve health: sticking to statins,” Ideas42.
- Schwartz, J., Riis, J., Elbel, B., Ariely, D. (2012), “Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption,” Health Affairs, 31, 2399–2407.
- “Simple measures ‘cut NHS missed appointments’,” BBC News Health, 8 March 2012.
- Webster, George. “Is a ‘nudge’ in the right direction all we need to be greener?” CNN, 2012.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on measuring impact with evidence and was originally published in 2013.
- Amount per $100 of government spending that is backed by evidence that the money is being spent wisely: less than $1
- Number of healthcare treatments delivered in the U.S. that lack evidence of effectiveness: more than half
- How much of total U.S. healthcare expenditure is spent to determine what works: less than 0.1 percent
- Number of major U.S. federal social programs evaluated since 1990 using randomized experiments and found to have “weak or no positive effects”: 9 out of 10
- Year the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy was set up to work with federal policymakers to advance evidence-based reforms in major U.S. social programs: 2001
- Year the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) was introduced by President Bush’s Office of Management and Budget (OMB): 2002
- Out of about 1,000 programs assessed, number found to be effective in 2008: 19%
- Percentage of programs that could not be assessed due to insufficient data: 17%
- Amount spent on the Even Start Family Literacy Program, rated ineffective by PART, over the life of the Bush administration: more than $1 billion
- Year Washington State legislature began using Washington State Institute for Public Policy’s estimates on how “a portfolio of evidence-based and economically sound programs . . . could affect the state’s crime rate, the need to build more prisons, and total criminal-justice spending”: 2007
- Amount invested by legislature in these programs: $48 million
- Amount saved by the legislature: $250 million
- Number of U.S. States in a pilot group working to adapt The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, based on the Washington State model, to make performance-based policy decisions: 14
- Net savings in health care expenditure by using the Transitional Care Model, which meets the Congressionally-based Top Tier Evidence Standard: $4,000 per patient
- Number of states that conducted “at least some studies that evaluated multiple program or policy options for making smarter investments of public dollars” between 2008-2011: 29
- Number of states that reported that their cost-benefit analysis influenced policy decisions or debate: 36
- Date the Office of Management and Budget issued a memorandum proposing new evaluations and advising agencies to include details on determining effectiveness of their programs, link disbursement to evidence, and support evidence-based initiatives: 2007
- Percentage increase in resources for innovation funds that use a tiered model for evidence, according to the President’s FY14 budget: 44% increase
- Amount President Obama proposed in his FY 2013 budget to allocate in existing funding to Performance Partnerships “in which states and localities would be given the flexibility to propose better ways to combine federal resources in exchange for greater accountability for results”: $200 million
- Amount of U.S. federal program funding that Harvard economist Jeffrey Liebman suggests be directed towards evaluations of outcomes: 1%
- Amount of funding the City of New York has committed for evidence-based research and development initiatives through its Center for Economic Opportunity: $100 million a year
- How many of the 30 OECD countries in 2005-6 have a formal requirement by law that the benefits of regulation justify the costs: half
- Number of 30 OECD member countries in 2008 that reported quantifying benefits to regulations: 16
- Those who reported quantifying costs: 24
- How many members make up the Alliance for Useful Evidence, a network that “champion[s] evidence, the opening up of government data for interrogation and use, alongside the sophistication in research methods and their applications”: over 1,000
- Date the UK government, the ESRC and the Big Lottery Fund announced plans to create a network of ‘What Works’ evidence centres: March 2013
- Core funding for the What Works Centre for Local Economic Growth: £1m p.a. over an initial three year term
- How many SOLACE Summit members in 2012 were “very satisfied” with how Research and Intelligence resources support evidence-based decision-making: 4%
- Number of areas they identified for improving evidence-based decision-making: 5
- Evaluation of the impact of past decisions: 46% of respondents
- Benchmarking data with other areas: 39%
- assessment of options available: 33%
- how evidence is presented: 29%
- Feedback on public engagement and consultation: 25%
- Number of areas for improvement for Research and Intelligence staff development identified at the SOLACE Summit: 6
- Strengthening customer insight and data analysis: 49%
- Impact evaluation: 48%
- Strategic/corporate thinking/awareness: 48%
- Political acumen: 46%
- Raising profile/reputation of the council for evidence-based decisions: 37%
- Guidance/mentoring on use of research for other officers: 25%
- Baron, Jon, and Isabel V. Sawhill. “Federal Programs for Youth: More of the Same Won’t Work,” Youth Today, May 2010.
- “Better Results, Lower Costs,” The Pew Center on the States, MacArthur Foundation, January 2012.
- Bridgeland, John, and Peter Orszag. “Can Government Play Moneyball?” The Atlantic. June 2013.
- “Evaluating Regulatory Performance,” Government at a Glance, OECD, 2011.
- Jacobzone, S., C. Choi and C. Miguet. “Indicators of Regulatory Management Systems,” OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 4, OECD Publishing, 2007.
- “Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research,” Institute of Medicine, June 2009.
- Johnson, Derrick. “Squaring the Circle,” Alliance for Useful Evidence, May 2013.
- Kamensky, John M. “State, Local, and International Evidence-Based Government Initiatives,” IBM Center for The Business of Government, July 2013.
- Liebman, Jeffrey B. “Building on Recent Advances in Evidence-Based Policymaking,” America Achieves, The Brookings Institution, April 2013.
- “Momentum Continues for Evidence-Based Policies,” America Achieves, May 2013.
- Moses Hamilton III, Dorsey E. Ray, Matheson David H.M., and Thier Samuel O. “Financial anatomy of biomedical research,” Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). 2005, 294(11):1333-1342.
- Mulgan, Geoff and Ruth Patrick. “Making Evidence Useful: The Case for New Institutions,” Nesta, March 2013.
- “States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis,” Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, July 2013.
- “Top Tier Evidence Initiative: Evidence Summary for the Transitional Care Model,” Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, October 2010.
- “What Works: evidence centres for social policy,” HM Government, March 2013.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on trust in institutions and was originally published in 2013.
Trust in Government
- How many of the global public feel that their governments listen to them: 17%
- How much of the global population trusts in institutions: almost half
- The number of Americans who trust institutions: less than half
- How many people globally believe that business leaders and government officials will tell the truth when confronted with a difficult issue: Less than one-fifth
- The average level of confidence amongst citizens in 25 OECD countries:
- In national government: 40%, down from 45% in 2007
- In financial institutions: 43%
- In public services such as local police and healthcare: 72% and 71% respectively
- How many Americans trust the government in Washington to do what is right “just about always or most of the time” in September 2013: 19%
- Those who trust the “men and women … who either hold or are running for public office”: 46%
- Number of Americans who express a great deal or fair amount of trust in:
- Local government: 71%
- State government: 62%
- Federal government: 52%
- How many Americans trust in the ability of “the American people” to make judgments about political issues facing the country: 61%, declining every year since 2009
- Those who have trust and confidence in the federal government’s ability to handle international problems: 49%
- Number of Americans who feel “angry” at the federal government: 3 in 10, all-time high since first surveyed in 1997
- Percentage of Americans who say “the political system can work fine, it’s the members of Congress that are the problem” in October 2013: 58%
- Following the government shutdown, number of Americans who stated that Congress would work better if nearly every member was replaced next year: nearly half
- Those who think that even an entire overhaul of Congress would not make much difference: 4 in 10
- Those who think that “most members of Congress have good intentions, it’s the political system that is broken” in October 2013: 32%
Trust in Media
- Global trust in media (traditional, social, hybrid, owned, online search): 57% and rising
- The percentage of Americans who say they have “a great deal or fair amount of trust and confidence in the mass media”: 44% – the lowest level since first surveyed in 1997
- How many Americans see the mass media as too liberal: 46%
- As too conservative: 13%
- As “just about right”: 37%
- The number of Americans who see the press as fulfilling the role of political watchdog and believe press criticism of political leaders keeps them from doing things that should not be done: 68%
- The proportion of Americans who have “only a little/not at all” level of trust in Facebook to protect privacy and personal information: three in four
- In Google: 68%
- In their cell phone provider: 63%
Trust in Industry
- Global trust in business: 58%
- How much of the global public trusts financial institutions: 50%
- Proportion of the global public who consider themselves informed about the banking scandals: more than half
- Of those, how many Americans report they now trust banks less: almost half
- Number of respondents globally who say they trust tech companies to do what’s right: 77%, most trusted industry
- Number of consumers across eight markets who were “confident” or “somewhat confident” that the tech sector can provide long-term solutions to meet the world’s toughest challenges: 76%
- Edelman, “Edelman Trust Barometer 2013: Annual Global Study,” 2013.
- Gallup Poll, “In U.S., Political Trust in “American People” at New Low,” September 27, 2013.
- Gallup Poll, “Fewer Americans Than Ever Trust Gov’t to Handle Problems,” September 13, 2013.
- Gallup Poll, “Americans’ Trust in Government Generally Down This Year,” September 26, 2013.
- Gallup Poll, “In U.S., Trust in Media Recovers Slightly From All-Time Low,” September 19, 2013.
- Maassen, Paul, and Vasani, Dolar, “Only 17% of the population feel their governments listens to them,” The Guardian, October 31, 2013.
- OECD, “Government at a Glance 2013,” OECD Publishing, 2013 (Preliminary).
- Pedersen, Pete. “In Tech We Trust,” Edelman, January 25, 2013.
- Pew Research Center, “Trust in Government Nears Record Low, But Most Federal Agencies Are Viewed Favorably,” October 18, 2013.
- Pew Research Center, “Views of Government: Key Data Points,” October 22, 2013.
- Pew Research Center, “Amid Criticism, Support for Media’s ‘Watchdog’ Role Stands Out,” August 8, 2013.
- USA Today/Princeton Survey Research Poll, “Poll: Nearly half say replace everyone in Congress,” October 21, 2013.
- Reason Rupe Public Opinion Survey, “September 2013 Topline Results,” September 2013.
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on the data universe and was originally published in 2013.
- How much data exists in the digital universe as of 2012: 2.7 zetabytes*
- Increase in the quantity of Internet data from 2005 to 2012: +1,696%
- Percent of the world’s data created in the last two years: 90
- Number of exabytes (=1 billion gigabytes) created every day in 2012: 2.5; that number doubles every month
- Percent of the digital universe in 2005 created by the U.S. and western Europe vs. emerging markets: 48 vs. 20
- Percent of the digital universe in 2012 created by emerging markets: 36
- Percent of the digital universe in 2020 predicted to be created by China alone: 21
- How much information in the digital universe is created and consumed by consumers (video, social media, photos, etc.) in 2012: 68%
- Percent of which enterprises have liability or responsibility for (copyright, privacy, compliance with regulations, etc.): 80
- Amount included in the Obama Administration’s 2-12 Big Data initiative: over $200 million
- Amount the Department of Defense is investing annually on Big Data projects as of 2012: over $250 million
- Data created per day in 2012: 2.5 quintillion bytes
- How many terabytes* of data collected by the U.S. Library of Congress as of April 2011: 235
- How many terabytes of data collected by Walmart per hour as of 2012: 2,560, or 2.5 petabytes*
- Projected growth in global data generated per year, as of 2011: 40%
- Number of IT jobs created globally by 2015 to support big data: 4.4 million (1.9 million in the U.S.)
- Potential shortage of data scientists in the U.S. alone predicted for 2018: 140,000-190,000, in addition to 1.5 million managers and analysts with the know-how to use the analysis of big data to make effective decisions
- Time needed to sequence the complete human genome (analyzing 3 billion base pairs) in 2003: ten years
- Time needed in 2013: one week
- The world’s annual effective capacity to exchange information through telecommunication networks in 1986, 2007, and (predicted) 2013: 281 petabytes, 65 exabytes, 667 exabytes
- Projected amount of digital information created annually that will either live in or pass through the cloud: 1/3
- Increase in data collection volume year-over-year in 2012: 400%
- Increase in number of individual data collectors from 2011 to 2012: nearly double (over 300 data collection parties in 2012)
*1 zetabyte = 1 billion terabytes | 1 petabyte = 1,000 terabytes | 1 terabyte = 1,000 gigabytes | 1 gigabyte = 1 billion bytes
- “Open Data Sites,” data.gov, accessed August 19, 2013.
- “Obama Administration Unveils “Big Data’ Initiative: Announces $200 Million in New R&D Investments,” Office of Science and Technology Policy, March 29, 2012.
- Joan Gantz and David Reinsel, “The Digital Universe Decade – Are you Ready?” International Data Corporation, iview, May 2010
- Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson,“Big Data: The Management Revolution,” Harvard business Review, October 2012.
- “Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition and productivity,” Mckinsey Global Institute, June 2011.
- “Big Data, Official statistics and Social Science Research,” The World Bank, December 12, 2012.
- “Data, data everywhere,” The Economist, February 25, 2010.
- Jimmy Daly, “18 Incredible Internet-Usage Statistics,” FedTech, June 12, 2013.
- Douglas Karr, “Infographic: Big Data Brings Marketing Big Numbers,” Marketing Tech Blog, May 9, 2012.
- “2012 Krux Cross-Industry Study,” Krux Research, June 12, 2012.
- “Gartner Says Big Data Creates Big Jobs,” Gartner, October 22, 2012.
- “Big Data Universe Beginning to Explode,” CSC, accessed August 19, 2013.
- “The Digital Universe in 2020,” IDC, December 2012
- “Big Data, for Better or Worse: 90 % of World’s Data Generated Over Last Two Years”, Science Faily, May 22, 2013.