Research Report by Ben Edwards, Solomon Greene and G. Thomas Kingsley: “With cities growing rapidly throughout much of the developing world, the global development community increasingly recognizes the need to build the capacities of local leaders to analyze and apply data to improve urban policymaking and service delivery. Civil society leaders, development advocates, and local governments are calling for an “urban data revolution” to accompany the new UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a revolution that would provide city leaders new tools and resources for data-driven governance. The need for improved data and analytic capacity in rapidly growing cities is clear, as is the exponential increase in the volume and types of data available for policymaking. However, the institutional arrangements that will allow city leaders to use data effectively remain incompletely theorized and poorly articulated.
This paper begins to fill that gap with a political economy framework that introduces three new concepts: permission, incentive, and institutionalization. We argue that without addressing the permission constraints and competing incentives that local government officials face in using data, investments in improved data collection at the local level will fail to achieve smarter urban policies. Granting permission and aligning incentives are also necessary to institutionalize data-driven governance at the local level and create a culture of evidence-based decisionmaking that outlives individual political administrations. Lastly, we suggest how the SDGs could support a truly transformative urban data revolution in which city leaders are empowered and incentivized to use data to drive decisionmaking for sustainable development…(More)”
Marielle Mondon at Next City: “Action-packed road signs could mean less unfortunate action for pedestrians. More than a year after New York and San Francisco implemented Vision Zero campaigns to increase pedestrian safety, new research shows that warning signs depicting greater movement — think running stick figures, not walking ones — cause fewer pedestrian accidents.
“A sign that evokes more perceived movement increases the observer’s perception of risk, which in turn brings about earlier attention and earlier stopping,” said Ryan Elder, co-author of the new Journal of Consumer Research report. “If you want to grab attention, you need signs that are more dynamic.”
The study argues that drivers react faster to signs showing greater movement because the threat of a last-minute accident seems more real — and often, a quicker reaction, even by a few seconds, can make a major difference….
Another important point in a world where pedestrians can play games with walk signals: Elder’s suggestions seem more noteworthy than whimsical — and not necessarily a contribution to urban cutesification that annoys some city-dwellers….(More)”
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on the networked public and was originally published in 2014.
- The proportion of global population who use the Internet in 2013: 38.8%, up 3 percentage points from 2012
- Increase in average global broadband speeds from 2012 to 2013: 17%
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that access the internet at least once a day in 2012: 96
- Hours spent online in 2012 each month across the globe: 35 billion
- Country with the highest online population, as a percent of total population in 2012: United Kingdom (85%)
- Country with the lowest online population, as a percent of total population in 2012: India (8%)
- Trend with the highest growth rate in 2012: Location-based services (27%)
- Years to reach 50 million users: telephone (75), radio (38), TV (13), internet (4)
Growth Rates in 2014
- Number of Whatsapp messages on average sent per day: 50 billion
- Number sent per day on Snapchat: 1.2 billion
- How many restaurants are registered on GrubHub in 2014: 29,000
- Amount the sale of digital songs fell in 2013: 6%
- How much song streaming grew in 2013: 32%
- Number of photos uploaded and shared every day on Flickr, Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook and Whatsapp combined in 2014: 1.8 billion
- How many online adults in the U.S. use a social networking site of some kind: 73%
- Those who use multiple social networking sites: 42%
- Dominant social networking platform: Facebook, with 71% of online adults
- Number of Facebook users in 2004, its founding year: 1 million
- Number of monthly active users on Facebook in September 2013: 1.19 billion, an 18% increase year-over-year
- How many Facebook users log in to the site daily: 63%
- Instagram users who log into the service daily: 57%
- Twitter users who are daily visitors: 46%
- Number of photos uploaded to Facebook every minute: over 243,000, up 16% from 2012
- How much of the global internet population is actively using Twitter every month: 21%
- Number of tweets per minute: 350,000, up 250% from 2012
- Fastest growing demographic on Twitter: 55-64 year age bracket, up 79% from 2012
- Fastest growing demographic on Facebook: 45-54 year age bracket, up 46% from 2012
- How many LinkedIn accounts are created every minute: 120, up 20% from 2012
- The number of Google searches in 2013: 3.5 million, up 75% from 2012
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that use social media in 2012: 90
- Percent of internet users surveyed globally that use social media daily: 60
- Time spent social networking, the most popular online activity: 22%, followed by searches (21%), reading content (20%), and emails/communication (19%)
- The average age at which a child acquires an online presence through their parents in 10 mostly Western countries: six months
- Number of children in those countries who have a digital footprint by age 2: 81%
- How many new American marriages between 2005-2012 began by meeting online, according to a nationally representative study: more than one-third
- How many of the world’s 505 leaders are on Twitter: 3/4
- Combined Twitter followers: of 505 world leaders: 106 million
- Combined Twitter followers of Justin Bieber, Katy Perry, and Lady Gaga: 122 million
- How many times all Wikipedias are viewed per month: nearly 22 billion times
- How many hits per second: more than 8,000
- English Wikipedia’s share of total page views: 47%
- Number of articles in the English Wikipedia in December 2013: over 4,395,320
- Platform that reaches more U.S. adults between ages 18-34 than any cable network: YouTube
- Number of unique users who visit YouTube each month: more than 1 billion
- How many hours of video are watched on YouTube each month: over 6 billion, 50% more than 2012
- Proportion of YouTube traffic that comes from outside the U.S.: 80%
- Most common activity online, based on an analysis of over 10 million web users: social media
- People on Twitter who recommend products in their tweets: 53%
- People who trust online recommendations from people they know: 90%
Mobile and the Internet of Things
- Number of global smartphone users in 2013: 1.5 billion
- Number of global mobile phone users in 2013: over 5 billion
- Percent of U.S. adults that have a cell phone in 2013: 91
- Number of which are a smartphone: almost two thirds
- Mobile Facebook users in March 2013: 751 million, 54% increase since 2012
- Growth rate of global mobile traffic as a percentage of global internet traffic as of May 2013: 15%, up from .9% in 2009
- How many smartphone owners ages 18–44 “keep their phone with them for all but two hours of their waking day”: 79%
- Those who reach for their smartphone immediately upon waking up: 62%
- Those who couldn’t recall a time their phone wasn’t within reach or in the same room: 1 in 4
- Facebook users who access the service via a mobile device: 73.44%
- Those who are “mobile only”: 189 million
- Amount of YouTube’s global watch time that is on mobile devices: almost 40%
- Number of objects connected globally in the “internet of things” in 2012: 8.7 billion
- Number of connected objects so far in 2013: over 10 billion
- Years from tablet introduction for tables to surpass desktop PC and notebook shipments: less than 3 (over 55 million global units shipped in 2013, vs. 45 million notebooks and 35 million desktop PCs)
- Number of wearable devices estimated to have been shipped worldwide in 2011: 14 million
- Projected number of wearable devices in 2016: between 39-171 million
- How much of the wearable technology market is in the healthcare and medical sector in 2012: 35.1%
- How many devices in the wearable tech market are fitness or activity trackers: 61%
- The value of the global wearable technology market in 2012: $750 million
- The forecasted value of the market in 2018: $5.8 billion
- How many Americans are aware of wearable tech devices in 2013: 52%
- Devices that have the highest level of awareness: wearable fitness trackers,
- Level of awareness for wearable fitness trackers amongst American consumers: 1 in 3 consumers
- Value of digital fitness category in 2013: $330 million
- How many American consumers surveyed are aware of smart glasses: 29%
- Smart watch awareness amongst those surveyed: 36%
- How much of the developed world has mobile broadband subscriptions in 2013: 3/4
- How much of the developing world has broadband subscription in 2013: 1/5
- Percent of U.S. adults that had a laptop in 2012: 57
- How many American adults did not use the internet at home, at work, or via mobile device in 2013: one in five
- Amount President Obama initiated spending in 2009 in an effort to expand access: $7 billion
- Number of Americans potentially shut off from jobs, government services, health care and education, among other opportunities due to digital inequality: 60 million
- American adults with a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 7 out of 10
- Americans aged 18-29 vs. 65+ with a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 80% vs. 43
- American adults with college education (or more) vs. adults with no high school diploma that have a high-speed broadband connection at home as of May 2013: 89% vs. 37%
- Percent of U.S. adults with college education (or more) that use the internet in 2011: 94
- Those with no high school diploma that used the internet in 2011: 43
- Percent of white American households that used the internet in 2013: 67
- Black American households that used the internet in 2013: 57
- States with lowest internet use rates in 2013: Mississippi, Alabama and Arkansas
- How many American households have only wireless telephones as of the second half of 2012: nearly two in five
- States with the highest prevalence of wireless-only adults according to predictive modeling estimates: Idaho (52.3%), Mississippi (49.4%), Arkansas (49%)
- Those with the lowest prevalence of wireless-only adults: New Jersey (19.4%), Connecticut (20.6%), Delaware (23.3%) and New York (23.5%)
- “A Focus on Efficiency: A whitepaper from Facebook, Ericsson and Qualcomm,” internet.org, September 16, 2013.
- “Always Connected: How Smartphones And Social Keep Us Engaged,” IDC Research Report, 2013.
- Blumberg, Stephen J., Nadarajasundaram Ganesh, Julian V. Luke, and Gilbert Gonzales. “Wireless Substitution: State-level Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2012,” National Health Statistics Reports, Number 70, December 18, 2013.
- Cacioppo, John T., Stephanie Cacioppo, Gian C. Gonzaga, Elizabeth L. Ogburn, and Tyler J. VanderWeele. “Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 25 (2013): 10135-10140.
- “Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion,” Cisco, July 29, 2013.
- Cooper, Belle Beth. “10 Surprising social media statistics that might make you rethink your social strategy,” Buffer, July 16, 2013.
- Duggan, Maeve and Aaron Smith. “Social Media Update 2013” Pew Research Center, January 2014.
- “Facebook Quarterly Earnings Slides,” Q1 2013, Facebook.
- Hachman, Mark. “Facebook Used by Half of the World’s Internet Users, Save Asia,” PC Mag, February 2012.
- Hanun, Marya. “Klout,” Foreign Policy, August 9, 2013
- Howle, Cynthia, Glenny Brock, and Alan Blinder. “Most of U.S. is Wired but Millions Aren’t Plugged In,” The New York Times, August 18, 2013.
- “Key ICT indicators for developed and developing countries and the world (totals and penetration rates)”, International Telecommunications Unions (ITU), Geneva, February 27, 2013.
- “Global Internet User Survey Sumary Reports,” The Internet Society, 2012, Accessed on August 13, 2013.
- Goldsmith, Belinda. “Porn passed over as Web users become social: author,” Reuters, September 2008.
- Meeker, Mary. “Internet Trends 2013,” KPCB, presented at D11 Conference, Rancho Palos,Verdes, California, May 28-30, 2013.
- Meeker, Mary. “2014 Internet Trends,” KPCB, May 28, 2014.
- Mirani, Leo. “A snapshot of one minute on the internet, today and in 2012,” Quartz, November 26, 2013.
- Piombino, Kristin. “How Internet Users Worldwide Spend Time Online,” May 17, 2012.
- Qualman, Erik. “Social Media Revolution,” YouTube, March 21, 2013.
- “Statistics,” YouTube, Accessed December 6, 2013.
- Sullivan, Danny. “Google: 100 billion Searches Per month, Search to integrate Gmail, Launching Enhanced Search App for iOS,” Search Engine Land, August 8, 2012.
- “Twitter Now The Fastest Growing Social Platform In The World” Global Web Index, January 28 , 2013.
- “Wearable Tech Device Awareness Surpasses 50 Percent Among US Consumers, According to NPD,” NPD Group, January 2014.
- “Wearable Technology Market – Global Scenario, Trends, Industry Analysis, Size, Share and Forecast, 2012- 2018,” Transparency Market Research, 2013.
- “Wikimedia Report Card” Wikimedia Labs, December 2013.
- “World Market for Wearable Technology – A Quantitative Market Assessment – 2012,” IMS Research, 2012.
- “Would you want a digital footprint from birth?” AVG Blogs, October 6, 2010.
- Zickuhr, Kathryn and Aaron Smith. “Digital Differences,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, April 13, 2012
- Zickuhr, Kathryn and Aaron Smith. “Home Broadband 2013,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, August 26, 2013.
Satish Nambisan: “Can citizens be fruitfully engaged in solving civic problems? Recent initiatives in cities such as Boston (Citizens Connect), Chicago (Smart Chicago Collaborative), San Francisco (ImproveSF) and New York (NYC BigApps) indicate that citizens can be involved in not just identifying and reporting civic problems but in conceptualizing, designing and developing, and implementing solutions as well.
The availability of new technologies (e.g. social media) has radically lowered the cost of collaboration and the “distance” between government agencies and the citizens they serve. Further involving citizens — who are often closest to and possess unique knowledge about the problems they face — makes a lot of sense given the increasing complexity of the problems that need to be addressed.
A recent research report that I wrote highlights four distinct roles that citizens can play in civic innovation and problem-solving.
As explorer, citizens can identify and report emerging and existing civic problems. For example, Boston’s Citizen Connect initiative enables citizens to use specially built smartphone apps to report minor and major civic problems (from potholes and graffiti to water/air pollution). Closer to home, both Wisconsin and Minnesota have engaged thousands of citizen volunteers in collecting data on the quality of water in their neighborhood streams, lakes and rivers (the data thus gathered are analyzed by the state pollution control agency). Citizens also can be engaged in data analysis. The N.Y.-based Datakind initiative involves citizen volunteers using their data analysis skills to mine public data in health, education, environment, etc., to identify important civic issues and problems.
As “ideator,”citizens can conceptualize novel solutions to well-defined problems in public services. For example, the federal government’s Challenge.gov initiative employs online contests and competitions to solicit innovative ideas from citizens to solve important civic problems. Such “crowdsourcing” initiatives also have been launched at the county, city and state levels (e.g. Prize2theFuture competition in Birmingham, Ala.; ImproveSF in San Francisco).
As designer, citizens can design and/or develop implementable solutions to well-defined civic problems. For example, as part of initiatives such as NYC Big Apps and Apps for California, citizens have designed mobile apps to address specific issues such as public parking availability, public transport delays, etc. Similarly, the City Repair project in Portland, Ore., focuses on engaging citizens in co-designing and creatively transforming public places into sustainable community-oriented urban spaces.
As diffuser,citizens can play the role of a change agent and directly support the widespread adoption of civic innovations and solutions. For example, in recent years, physicians interacting with peer physicians in dedicated online communities have assisted federal and state government agencies in diffusing health technology innovations such as electronic medical record systems (EMRs).
In the private sector, companies across industries have benefited much from engaging with their customers in innovation. Evidence so far suggests that the benefits from citizen engagement in civic problem-solving are equally tangible, valuable and varied. However, the challenges associated with organizing such citizen co-creation initiatives are also many and imply the need for government agencies to adopt an intentional, well-thought-out approach….”