From Collective Intelligence to Collective Intelligence Systems

New Paper by A. Kornrumpf and U. Baumol in  the International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems: “Collective intelligence (CI) has become a popular research topic over the past few years. However, the CI debate suffers from several problems such as that there is no unanimously agreed-upon definition of CI that clearly differentiates between CI and related terms such as swarm intelligence (SI) and collective intelligence systems (CIS). Furthermore, a model of such CIS is lacking for purposes of research and the design of new CIS. This paper aims at untangling the definitions of CI and other related terms, especially CIS, and at providing a semi-structured model of CIS as a first step towards more structured research. The authors of this paper argue that CI can be defined as the ability of sufficiently large groups of individuals to create an emergent solution for a specific class of problems or tasks. The authors show that other alleged properties of CI which are not covered by this definition, are, in fact, properties of CIS and can be understood by regarding CIS as complex socio-technical systems (STS) that enable the realization of CI. The model defined in this article serves as a means to structure open questions in CIS research and helps to understand which research methodology is adequate for different aspects of CIS.”