Paper by Wolfgang Kerber: “Starting with the assumption that under certain conditions also mandatory solutions for access to privately held data can be necessary, this paper analyses the legal and regulatory instruments for the implementation of such data access solutions. After an analysis of advantages and problems of horizontal versus sectoral access solutions, the main thesis of this paper is that focusing only on data access solutions is often not enough for achieving the desired positive effects on competition and innovation. An analysis of the two examples access to bank account data (PSD2: Second Payment Service Directive) and access to data of the connected car shows that successful data access solutions might require an entire package of additional complementary regulatory solutions (e.g. regarding interoperability, standardisation, and safety and security), and therefore the analysis and regulatory design of entire data governance systems (based upon an economic market failure analysis). In the last part important instruments that can be used within data governance systems are discussed, like, e.g. data trustee solutions….(More)”.