Book by Šárka Laboutková, Vít Šimral and Petr Vymětal: “This book deals with the current, as yet unsolved, problem of transparency of lobbying. In the current theories and prevalent models that deal with lobbying activities, there is no reflection of the degree of transparency of lobbying, mainly due to the unclear distinction between corruption, lobbying in general, and transparent lobbying. This book provides a perspective on transparency in lobbying in a comprehensive and structured manner. It delivers an interdisciplinary approach to the topic and creates a methodology for assessing the transparency of lobbying, its role in the democratization process and a methodology for evaluating the main consequences of transparency. The new approach is applied to assess lobbying regulations in the countries of Central Eastern Europe and shows a method for how lobbying in other regions of the world may also be assessed….(More)”.
CRS Report: “Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field of technology with potentially significant implications for national security. As such, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and other nations are developing AI applications for a range of military functions. AI research is underway in the fields of intelligence collection and analysis, logistics, cyber operations, information operations, command and control, and in a variety of semiautonomous and autonomous vehicles.
Already, AI has been incorporated into military operations in Iraq and Syria. Congressional action has the potential to shape the technology’s development further, with budgetary and legislative decisions influencing the growth of military applications as well as the pace of their adoption.
AI technologies present unique challenges for military integration, particularly because the bulk of AI development is happening in the commercial sector. Although AI is not unique in this regard, the defense acquisition process may need to be adapted for acquiring emerging technologies like AI. In addition, many commercial AI applications must undergo significant modification prior to being functional for the military.
A number of cultural issues also challenge AI acquisition, as some commercial AI companies are averse to partnering with DOD due to ethical concerns, and even within the department, there can be resistance to incorporating AI technology into existing weapons systems and processes.
Potential international rivals in the AI market are creating pressure for the United States to compete for innovative military AI applications. China is a leading competitor in this regard, releasing a plan in 2017 to capture the global lead in AI development by 2030. Currently, China is primarily focused on using AI to make faster and more well-informed decisions, as well as on developing a variety of autonomous military vehicles. Russia is also active in military AI development, with a primary focus on robotics.
Although AI has the potential to impart a number of advantages in the military context, it may also introduce distinct challenges. AI technology could, for example, facilitate autonomous operations, lead to more informed military decisionmaking, and increase the speed and scale of military action. However, it may also be unpredictable or vulnerable to unique forms of manipulation. As a result of these factors, analysts hold a broad range of opinions on how influential AI will be in future combat operations. While a small number of analysts believe that the technology will have minimal impact, most believe that AI will have at least an evolutionary—if not revolutionary—effect….(More)”.
OECD Report: “Government at a Glance provides reliable, internationally comparative data on government activities and their results in OECD countries. Where possible, it also reports data for Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. In many public governance areas, it is the only available source of data. It includes input, process, output and outcome indicators as well as contextual information for each country.
The 2019 edition includes input indicators on public finance and employment; while processes include data on institutions, budgeting practices and procedures, human resources management, regulatory government, public procurement and digital government and open data. Outcomes cover core government results (e.g. trust, inequality reduction) and indicators on access, responsiveness, quality and citizen satisfaction for the education, health and justice sectors.
Governance indicators are especially useful for monitoring and benchmarking governments’ progress in their public sector reforms.Each indicator in the publication is presented in a user-friendly format, consisting of graphs and/or charts illustrating variations across countries and over time, brief descriptive analyses highlighting the major findings conveyed by the data, and a methodological section on the definition of the indicator and any limitations in data comparability….(More)”.
Book edited by Ashu M. G. Solo: “Technology and particularly the Internet have caused many changes in the realm of politics. Aspects of engineering, computer science, mathematics, or natural science can be applied to politics. Politicians and candidates use their own websites and social network profiles to get their message out. Revolutions in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa have started in large part due to social networking websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Social networking has also played a role in protests and riots in numerous countries. The mainstream media no longer has a monopoly on political commentary as anybody can set up a blog or post a video online. Now, political activists can network together online.
The Handbook of Research on Politics in the Computer Age is a pivotal reference source that serves to increase the understanding of methods for politics in the computer age, the effectiveness of these methods, and tools for analyzing these methods. The book includes research chapters on different aspects of politics with information technology, engineering, computer science, or math, from 27 researchers at 20 universities and research organizations in Belgium, Brazil, Cape Verde, Egypt, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, and the United States of America. Highlighting topics such as online campaigning and fake news, the prospective audience includes, but is not limited to, researchers, political and public policy analysts, political scientists, engineers, computer scientists, political campaign managers and staff, politicians and their staff, political operatives, professors, students, and individuals working in the fields of politics, e-politics, e-government, new media and communication studies, and Internet marketing….(More)”.
Book by Richard Stengel: “Disinformation is as old as humanity. When Satan told Eve nothing would happen if she bit the apple, that was disinformation. But the rise of social media has made disinformation even more pervasive and pernicious in our current era. In a disturbing turn of events, governments are increasingly using disinformation to create their own false narratives, and democracies are proving not to be very good at fighting it.
During the final three years of the Obama administration, Richard Stengel, the former editor of Time and an Under Secretary of State, was on the front lines of this new global information war. At the time, he was the single person in government tasked with unpacking, disproving, and combating both ISIS’s messaging and Russian disinformation. Then, in 2016, as the presidential election unfolded, Stengel watched as Donald Trump used disinformation himself, weaponizing the grievances of Americans who felt left out by modernism. In fact, Stengel quickly came to see how all three players had used the same playbook: ISIS sought to make Islam great again; Putin tried to make Russia great again; and we all know about Trump.
In a narrative that is by turns dramatic and eye-opening, Information Wars walks readers through of this often frustrating battle. Stengel moves through Russia and Ukraine, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and introduces characters from Putin to Hillary Clinton, John Kerry and Mohamed bin Salman to show how disinformation is impacting our global society. He illustrates how ISIS terrorized the world using social media, and how the Russians launched a tsunami of disinformation around the annexation of Crimea – a scheme that became the model for their interference with the 2016 presidential election. An urgent book for our times, Information Wars stresses that we must find a way to combat this ever growing threat to democracy….(More)”.
Report by Philip Howard and Samantha Bradshaw: “…The report explores the tools, capacities, strategies and resources employed by global ‘cyber troops’, typically government agencies and political parties, to influence public opinion in 70 countries.
Key findings include:
- Organized social media manipulation has more than doubled since 2017, with 70 countries using computational propaganda to manipulate public opinion.
- In 45 democracies, politicians and political parties have used computational propaganda tools by amassing fake followers or spreading manipulated media to garner voter support.
- In 26 authoritarian states, government entities have used computational propaganda as a tool of information control to suppress public opinion and press freedom, discredit criticism and oppositional voices, and drown out political dissent.
- Foreign influence operations, primarily over Facebook and Twitter, have been attributed to cyber troop activities in seven countries: China, India, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
- China has now emerged as a major player in the global disinformation order, using social media platforms to target international audiences with disinformation.
- 25 countries are working with private companies or strategic communications firms offering a computational propaganda as a service.
- Facebook remains the platform of choice for social media manipulation, with evidence of formally organised campaigns taking place in 56 countries….
The report explores the tools and techniques of computational propaganda, including the use of fake accounts – bots, humans, cyborgs and hacked accounts – to spread disinformation. The report finds:
- 87% of countries used human accounts
- 80% of countries used bot accounts
- 11% of countries used cyborg accounts
- 7% of countries used hacked or stolen accounts…(More)”.
By Michelle Winowatan, Andrew J. Zahuranec, Andrew Young, Stefaan Verhulst, Max Jun Kim
The Living Library Index – inspired by the Harper’s Index – provides important statistics and highlights global trends in governance innovation. This installment focuses on the data universe.
Please share any additional, illustrative statistics on data, or other issues at the nexus of technology and governance, with us at firstname.lastname@example.org
- Percentage of the world’s population that uses the internet: 51.2% (3.9 billion people) – 2018
- Number of search processed worldwide by Google every year: at least 2 trillion – 2016
- Website traffic worldwide generated through mobile phones: 52.2% – 2018
- The total number of mobile subscriptions in the first quarter of 2019: 7.9 billion (addition of 44 million in quarter) – 2019
- Amount of mobile data traffic worldwide: nearly 30 billion GB – 2018
- Data category with highest traffic worldwide: video (60%) – 2018
- Global average of data traffic per smartphone per month: 5.6 GB – 2018
- Time between the creation of each new bitcoin block: 9.27 minutes – 2019
- Total hours of video streamed by Netflix users every minute: 97,222 – 2017
- Hours of YouTube watched per day: over 1 billion – 2018
- Number of tracks uploaded to Spotify every day: Over 20,000 – 2019
- Number of Spotify’s monthly active users: 232 million – 2019
- Spotify’s total subscribers: 108 million – 2019
- Spotify’s hours of content listened: 17 billion – 2019
- Total number of songs on Spotify’s catalog: over 30 million – 2019
- Apple Music’s total subscribers: 60 million – 2019
- Total number of songs on Apple Music’s catalog: 45 million – 2019
- Number of snaps shared by Snapchat users every day: Over 3.5 billion – 2017
- Number of tweets sent every day: 500 million – 2019
- Number of Instagram users: over 700 million – 2017
- Amount of data created by Facebook in a day: 4,000,000 GB – 2014
- Number of LinkedIn members: 645 million – 2019
- LinkedIn sign-up rate: 2 members per second – 2019
- Number of photos and videos shared on Instagram every day: 95 million – 2019
- Tinder dates per week: 1 million – 2019
- Total matches on Tinder: over 30 billion – 2019
- Most popular month on Tinder in the US: August – 2018
- Day: Monday – 2018
- Time of day: 9 PM EST – 2018
Calls and Messaging:
- Estimated robocalls made in the US: 47.8 billion – 2018
- Number of messages sent over WhatsApp each day: 65 billion – 2018
- Minutes of voice and video calls made on WhatsApp each day: 2 billion – 2018
- Top 3 most popular messaging apps worldwide: WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat – 2019
- Worldwide email users: 2.943 billion – 2019
- Number of emails sent/received per day: 246.5 billion – 2019
- Number of packages shipped by Amazon in a year: 5 billion – 2017
- Total value of payments processed by Venmo in a year: USD 62 billion – 2019
- Based on an independent analysis of public transactions on Venmo in 2017:
- Based on a non-representative survey of 2,436 US consumers between the ages of 21 and 72 on P2P platforms:
- The average volume of transactions handled by Venmo: USD 64.2 billion – 2019
- The average volume of transactions handled by Zelle: USD 122.0 billion – 2019
- The average volume of transactions handled by PayPal: USD 141.8 billion – 2019
- Platform with the highest percent adoption among all consumers: PayPal (48%) – 2019
Internet of Things:
- Number of connected IoT devices worldwide: 8.3 billion – 2018
- Number of new devices connected to the Internet every second: 127 – 2017
- Number of wearable devices: 526 million – 2017
- Based on aggregated and anonymized data of Fitbit users from January 1, 2018 – 2018
- Total steps taken: 27 trillion – 2018
- Total hours slept: 12 billion – 2018
- Total active minutes: 119 billion – 2018
- Top 5 countries/territories with most steps: Hong Kong, Spain, Ireland, Sweden, Germany – 2018
- Top 5 countries that get the most sleep: Finland, New Zealand, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands – 2018
- Top 5 US locales with the lowest resting heart rate: Bend, OR; Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, and San Luis Obispo, CA; Twin Falls, ID; Monterey-Salinas, CA; Juneau, AK – 2018
- Amount of data produced by an autonomous car in a one and a half hour of driving: – 4,000 GB
- Al-Heeti, Abrar. “WhatsApp: 65B Messages Sent Each Day, and More than 2B Minutes of Calls.” CNET, May 1, 2018. https://www.cnet.com/news/whatsapp-65-billion-messages-sent-each-day-and-more-than-2-billion-minutes-of-calls/.
- Bhuiyan, Johana. “Uber Powered Four Billion Rides in 2017. It Wants to Do More — and Cheaper — in 2018.” Vox, January 5, 2018. https://www.vox.com/2018/1/5/16854714/uber-four-billion-rides-coo-barney-harford-2018-cut-costs-customer-service.
- Blockchain Staff. “Bitcoin Currency Statistics.” Blockchain.com, August 2019. https://www.blockchain.com/stats.
- Carman, Ashley. “Amazon Shipped over 5 Billion Items Worldwide through Prime in 2017.” The Verge, January 2, 2018. https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/2/16841786/amazon-prime-2017-users-ship-five-billion.
- Cisco®. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2017–2022 White Paper.” Cisco, February 18, 2019. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/white-paper-c11-738429.html.
- Clement, J. “Mobile Share of Website Visits Worldwide 2018.” Statistica, July 22, 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/241462/global-mobile-phone-website-traffic-share/.
- ———. “Most Popular Messaging Apps 2019.” Statistica, August 9, 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/258749/most-popular-global-mobile-messenger-apps/.
- Desjardins, Jeff. “How Much Data Is Generated Each Day?” World Economic Forum, April 17, 2019. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/04/how-much-data-is-generated-each-day-cf4bddf29f/.
- Do Thi Duc, Hang. “PUBLIC BY DEFAULT – Venmo Stories of 2017.” Public By Default FYI, 2018. https://publicbydefault.fyi.
- Dwyer, Erin. “2017 on Netflix – A Year in Bingeing.” Netflix Media Center, December 11, 2017. https://media.netflix.com/en/press-releases/2017-on-netflix-a-year-in-bingeing.
- Fisher, Christine. “Apple Music Now Has 60 Million Paid Subscribers.” Engadget, June 27, 2019. https://www.engadget.com/2019/06/27/apple-music-60-million-paid-subscribers/.
- Instagram. “700 Million.” Instagram Press (blog), April 26, 2017. https://instagram-press.com/blog/2017/04/26/700-million/.
- Jonsson, Peter, Stephen Carson, Andres Torres, Per Lindberg, Kati Öhman, Athanasios Karapantelakis, Shamil Bajgin, et al. “Ericsson Mobility Report.” Stockholm, Sweden: Ericsson, 2019. https://www.ericsson.com/49d1d9/assets/local/mobility-report/documents/2019/ericsson-mobility-report-june-2019.pdf.
- Lasse Lueth, Knud. “State of the IoT 2018: Number of IoT Devices Now at 7B – Market Accelerating,” August 8, 2018. https://iot-analytics.com/state-of-the-iot-update-q1-q2-2018-number-of-iot-devices-now-7b/.
- Levenson, Josh, and Parker Hall. “Apple Music vs. Spotify.” Digital Trends, August 7, 2019. https://www.digitaltrends.com/music/apple-music-vs-spotify/.
- LinkedIn. “About Us.” LinkedIn, 2019. https://news.linkedin.com/about-us.
- Patel, Mark, Jason Shangkuan, and Christopher Thomas. “What’s New with the Internet of Things? | McKinsey.” McKinsey & Company, May 2017. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/semiconductors/our-insights/whats-new-with-the-internet-of-things.
- Trefis Research Team. “Estimating Lyft’s Valuation.” Trefis, 2019. https://dashboards.trefis.com/no-login-required/zrRBRShU/Estimating-Lyft’s-Valuation.
- Rooney, Kate. “PayPal’s Venmo Had a Break-out Quarter with Payments Surging 80%.” CNBC, January 31, 2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/31/venmo-had-a-break-out-quarter-but-wont-make-money-for-paypal-until-at-mid-2019–.html.
- Shevlin, Ron. “Fintech Adoption in the US: The Opportunity for Banks and Credit Unions.” Scottsdale, AZ: Cornerstone Advisors, 2018. https://www.q2ebanking.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/20181107-Q2-Fintech-Adoption-Index.pdf.
- Smith. “Fitbit’s Fittest: The Countries (And Cities) That Stepped It Up and Slept More In 2018.” Fitbit Blog, January 12, 2019. https://blog.fitbit.com/fitbit-year-in-review-2018/.
- Snap, Inc. “Snap Inc. Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2017 Results.” Snap, February 6, 2018. https://investor.snap.com/~/media/Files/S/Snap-IR/reports-and-presentations/q4-17-earnings-slides.pdf.
- Spotify. “Music – FAQ.” Spotify, 2019. https://artists.spotify.com/faq/music.
- ———. “Spotify Reports Second Quarter 2019 Earnings.” Spotify, July 31, 2019. https://newsroom.spotify.com/2019-07-31/spotify-reports-second-quarter-2019-earnings/.
- Sullivan, Danny. “Google Now Handles at Least 2 Trillion Searches per Year.” Search Engine Land, May 24, 2016. https://searchengineland.com/google-now-handles-2-999-trillion-searches-per-year-250247.
- The Radicati Group, Inc. “Email Statistics Report, 2015-2019: Executive Summary.” The Radicati Group, Inc, March 2015. https://www.radicati.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Email-Statistics-Report-2015-2019-Executive-Summary.pdf.
- Tinder Press Team. “Tinder Press and Brand Assets.” Tinder, 2019. https://tinder.com.
- Tinder Staff. “This Is What Happened On Tinder In 2018.” Swipe Life, December 5, 2018. https://swipelife.tinder.com/post/tinder-2018.
- Twitter, Inc. “Twitter for Business.” Twitter, 2019. https://business.twitter.com/en.html.
- Wiener, Janet, and Nathan Bronson. “Facebook’s Top Open Data Problems.” Facebook Research (blog), October 22, 2014. https://research.fb.com/blog/2014/10/facebook-s-top-open-data-problems/.
- Winter, Kathy. “For Self-Driving Cars, There’s Big Meaning Behind One Big Number: 4 Terabytes.” Intel Newsroom, April 14, 2017. https://newsroom.intel.com/editorials/self-driving-cars-big-meaning-behind-one-number-4-terabytes/.
- YouMail. “YouMail Robocall Index: July 2019 Nationwide Robocall Data.” Robocall Index, 2019. https://robocallindex.com/.
- YouTube Press Team. “Press – YouTube.” YouTube, August 2019. https://www.youtube.com/yt/about/press/.
- Zavazava, Cosmas, Rati Skhirtladze, Vanessa Gray, Esperanza Magpantay, Daniela Pokorna, Martin Schaaper, and Ivan Vallejo. “Measuring the Information Society Report 2018 – Volume 1.” Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunication Union, 2018. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2018/MISR-2018-Vol-1-E.pdf.
Essay by Richard A. Clarke And Rob Knake in Foreign Affairs: “The early days of the Internet inspired a lofty dream: authoritarian states, faced with the prospect of either connecting to a new system of global communication or being left out of it, would choose to connect. According to this line of utopian thinking, once those countries connected, the flow of new information and ideas from the outside world would inexorably pull them toward economic openness and political liberalization. In reality, something quite different has happened. Instead of spreading democratic values and liberal ideals, the Internet has become the backbone of authoritarian surveillance states all over the world. Regimes in China, Russia, and elsewhere have used the Internet’s infrastructure to build their own national networks. At the same time, they have installed technical and legal barriers to prevent their citizens from reaching the wider Internet and to limit Western companies from entering their digital markets.
But despite handwringing in Washington and Brussels about authoritarian schemes to split the Internet, the last thing Beijing and Moscow want is to find themselves relegated to their own networks and cut off from the global Internet. After all, they need access to the Internet to steal intellectual property, spread propaganda, interfere with elections in other countries, and threaten critical infrastructure in rival countries. China and Russia would ideally like to re-create the Internet in their own images and force the world to play by their repressive rules. But they haven’t been able to do that—so instead they have ramped up their efforts to tightly control outside access to their markets, limit their citizens’ ability to reach the wider Internet, and exploit the vulnerability that comes with the digital freedom and openness enjoyed in the West.
The United States and its allies and partners should stop worrying about the risk of authoritarians splitting the Internet. Instead, they should split it themselves, by creating a digital bloc within which data, services, and products can flow freely…(More)”.
Article by Eyal Weizman: “More than a decade ago, I would have found the idea of a forensic institute to be rather abhorrent. Coming from the field of left activism and critical spatial practice, I felt instinctively oriented against the authority of established truths. Forensics relies on technical expertise in normative and legal frameworks, and smacks full of institutional authority. It is, after all, one of the fundamental arts of the state, the privilege of its agencies: the police, the secret services, or the military. Today, counter-intuitively perhaps, I find myself running Forensic Architecture, a group of architects, filmmakers, coders, and journalists which operates as a forensic agency and makes evidence public in different forums such as the media, courts, truth commissions, and cultural venues.
This reorientation of my thought practice was a response to changes in the texture of our present and to the nature of contemporary conflict. An evolving information and media environment enables authoritarian states to manipulate and distort facts about their crimes, but it also offers new techniques with which civil society groups can invert the forensic gaze and monitor them. This is what we call counter-forensics.
We do not yet have a satisfactory name for the new reactionary forces—a combination of digital racism, ultra-nationalism, self-victimhood, and conspiracism—that have taken hold across the world and become manifest in countries such as Russia, Poland, Hungary, Britain, Italy, Brazil, the US, and Israel, where I most closely experienced them. These forces have made the obscuring, blurring, manipulation, and distortion of facts their trademark. Whatever form of reality-denial “post truth” is, it is not simply about lying. Lying in politics is sometimes necessary. Deception, after all, has always been part of the toolbox of statecraft, and there might not be more of it now than in previous times. The defining characteristics of our era might thus not be an extraordinary dissemination of untruths, but rather, ongoing attacks against the institutional authorities that buttress facts: government experts, universities, science laboratories, mainstream media, and the judiciary.
Because questioning the authority of state institutions is also what counter-forensics is about—we seek to expose police and military cover-ups, government lies, and instances in which the legal system has been aligned against state victims—we must distinguish it from the tactics of those political forces mentioned above.
While “post truth” is a seemingly new phenomenon, for those working to expose state crimes at the frontiers of contemporary conflicts, it has long been the constant condition of our work. As a set of operations, this form of denial compounds the traditional roles of propaganda and censorship. It is propaganda because it is concerned with statements released by states to affect the thoughts and conducts of publics. It is not the traditional form of propaganda though, framed in the context of a confrontation between blocs and ideologies. It does not aim to persuade or tell you anything, nor does it seek to promote the assumed merits of one system over the other—equality vs. freedom or east vs. west—but rather to blur perception so that nobody knows what is real anymore. The aim is that when people no longer know what to think, how to establish facts, or when to trust them, those in power can fill this void by whatever they want to fill it with.
“Post truth” also functions as a new form of censorship because it blocks one’s ability to evaluate and debate facts. In the face of governments’ increasing difficulties in cutting data out of circulation and in suppressing political discourse, it adds rather than subtracts, augmenting the level of noise in a deliberate maneuver to divert attention….(More)”.
Paper by Bissera Zankova: “The purpose of the study is to analyze the role of social media to boost democratic citizenship and contribute to the creation of smart environment through the perspective of direct democracy in Bulgaria. The issue of “smart cities” will be tackled from a broader media and communication perspective. The term “smart city” does not denote the symbiosis between urban development and new information technologies only but it signifies a new vibrant social ecology rooted in the thorough use of the Internet for wider democratic participation. As a theoretical basis of my survey I shall use Dewey’s model of the inherent bond between communication and enlightened citizenry and Robert Putnam’s theory about the social capital facilitated by social networks generating trust and solidarity among community members. As a case study I shall dwell on local democracy and particularly on two recent referendums in Bulgaria (2017) – in the cities of Tran and Stara Zagora, their basic premises, claims, organization, social media use, outcomes and impact. Though not mandatory for the governing bodies the referendums’ results demonstrated the level of social activity in the country underpinned by networks. Democracy should be understood best through the Abraham Lincoln’s centuries-cherished metaphor as “government of the people, by the people, for the people”. In the current research I build on a previous investigation done in 2013 on civic journalism, blogs and protests in Bulgaria and on my contribution to the book “Smart journalism” (Zankova, Skolkay, Franklin (2016), presenting findings from the New Media Literacy Project 2012 – 2014. This interdisciplinary paper will be useful for both academics and practitioners and specifically for media specialists who will get knowledge about the state of direct democracy in a new democratic country in SEE, new media non/ contribution to this state and what the necessary conditions are to make this democracy really workable at a community level to turn the cities into future-oriented democratic centres….(More)”